Beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi besar kecil nya hydroxy gas terproduksi serta diagram PWM ex. stan meyer, ini hanya refference saja karena ada desakan dari teman-teman untuk di post kan disini, soalnya kalau disuruh kirim email attachment, koneksi ane yang cuman pake IM2 lemot nya bene bener lemot mot mot, suseh kirim nya gagal molo.
The rate of hydroxy gas production depends on a number of factors:
- The liquid used for electrolysis. If distilled water is used, then almost no current will flow through the cell as
distilled water has a very high resistance to current flow, and almost no gas will be produced. It is normal
- practice to add some other substance to the water to increase the rate of gas production. If salt is added to the water, the rate of electrolysis increases enormously. However, that is not a good choice of additive as the salt forms a corrosive mixture and Chlorine gas is produced along with the Hydrogen and Oxygen gasses. The same goes for battery acid; it does work but it is a very poor choice which causes practical problems over a period of time. Other additives will create the increase in gas production but have similar undesirable effects. Two additives stand out as being the best choices. The first is Sodium Hydroxide (chemical symbol NaOH), sometimes called ‘lye’. The very best choice is Potassium Hydroxide (chemical symbol KOH) which is available in pellet form. Potassium Hydroxide acts as a catalyst in the process of electrolysis in that it promotes the gas production but does not get used up in the process.
- The spacing of the electrode plates. The closer together the plates are placed, the greater the rate of gas production. There is a practical limit to this, as bubbles of gas formed between the plates have to be able
to escape and rise to the surface. The optimum spacing is generally considered to be 3 mm or 1/8 inch, although some people prefer to have a 5 mm gap between the plates. These plates are typically made from 316 grade stainless steel.
- The area of the electrode plates and the preparation of the plate surface. The greater the plate area, the greater the rate of gas production. Some of this effect may be due to the improvement in the chances of bubbles escaping from the plates and not blocking some of the plate area. It is recommended that each face of every electrode plate has an area of between two and four square inches (13 and 25 square centimetres) per amp of current flowing through the cell. The preparation of the surface of the plates has a major effect on the rate of gas production. A major improvement is achieved if both sides of each plate are sanded in a criss-cross pattern (this produces an increased surface area with thousands of microscopic peaks which help bubbles form and leave the plate). The plates are then assembled and immersed in the electrolyte solution for about three days. This creates a protective white coating on the surface of the plates which helps enhance the electrolysis. The
plates are then rinsed off with distilled water and the cell is refilled with a fresh solution of electrolyte.
- The current flowing through the cell. This is an absolutely key factor in gas production, and one of the most difficult to control accurately and economically. The greater the current, the greater the rate of gas production. The current is controlled by the concentration of Potassium Hydroxide in the electrolyte (water plus KOH) and the voltage across the cell. The voltage across the cell has limited effect as it reaches a maximum at just 1.24 volts. Up to that point, an increase in voltage causes an increase in gas production rate. Once the voltage gets over 1.24 volts, increasing it further produces no further increase in the rate of gas production. If the voltage is increased above 1.24 volts, the extra voltage goes to heat the electrolyte. Assume that the current through the cell is 10 amps. In that case, the power used to produce gas is 10 amps x 1.24 volts = 12.4 watts. When the engine is running, the voltage at the battery terminals will be about 13.8 volts as the alternator provides the extra voltage to drive current into the battery. The excess voltage applied to the cell is about 1.24 less than that, say 12.5 volts. The power which heats the electrolyte is about 12.5 volts x 10 amps = 125 watts. That is ten times the power being used to produce gas. This is very, very inefficient.
- The following diagram may help you understand the situation:The best electrode material for the plates is 316L-grade stainless steel. It is hard to believe, but there is a voltage drop across the plate, which makes it necessary to apply about 2 volts to the plates on each side of the cell. So, if you are running off 12 volts, then six cells in a row across the battery gives the maximum possible drive. With the engine running and providing almost 14 volts, seven cells gives the highest possible drive. The electrolyte heating up is a wholly bad thing as it drives a good deal of water vapour out of the electrolyte and this mixes with the gas and is fed to the engine. Injecting water mist, which is a fine spray of water droplets, into an engine increases its performance due to the water expanding when it is heated. This improves both the engine power and the miles per gallon, and it makes the engine run cooler, which improves the life of the engine. But water vapour is a bad thing as it is already fully expanded and just gets in the way of the hydroxy gas, diluting it and lowering the power of the engine with no benefit at all. As the voltage applied to the cell is pretty much fixed, the current flow is controlled by the concentration of Potassium Hydroxide in the electrolyte and the plate area. Once the cell is built, the plate area is fixed, so the current is adjusted by controlling the amount of KOH added to the water. There is a slight limit to this, in that the gas production increases with KOH concentration until the concentration reaches 28% (by weight). After that point, any increase in the concentration produces a reduction in the rate of gas production. General practice is to have a fairly low concentration of KOH which is found by trial. Bob Boyce, who is very experienced in this field, says that you should never add water to NaOH or KOH. Always start with water, and add the chemical to the water SLOWLY, stirring well and allowing the mixture to cool in between additions. Shelf life depends on how well it is sealed from the atmosphere. Carbon is an enemy to this process. Whether the KOH is in dry or liquid form, it will absorb carbon from CO2 in the atmosphere, or any other source of free carbon. As this happens, the catalytic effect is diminished. The more carbon is absorbed, the less the catalytic efficiency of the electrolyte. So, if you wish to maintain maximum performance, it is crucial to keep air out of your dry or liquid chemical storage containers, AND away from the electrolyte in your cells.
- The temperature of the electrolyte. The hotter the electrolyte, the higher the current carried through it. This can be a snag. Suppose it is decided that the current through the cell is to be 10 amps and the electrolyte concentration adjusted to give that current when the engine is started. As time passes, the 125 watts of excess power drawn from the battery, heats the electrolyte, which in turn causes an increase in the current flowing through the cell, which causes even greater heating, which….. The result is positive feedback which causes a runaway temperature effect. This effect is aggravated by the water in the cell being used up as the vehicle drives along. This raises the concentration of the electrolyte because the amount of KOH remains the same while the amount of water reduces. There are different ways of dealing with this problem. One is to reduce the concentration of KOH so that the chosen current is only reached when the electrolyte has reached its maximum working temperature. This is a simple solution with the slight disadvantage that the gas production rate when starting is lower than it could be. However, the heating power is so high that it will not be long until the cell is operating at its maximum temperature. A different way to handle the problem is to use an electronic circuit to limit the current through the cell to the chosen value by dropping the voltage applied to the cell. This has the disadvantage that the extra power is being dissipated in the electronics which then has a heat problem. Also, this solution does not improve the overall efficiency of the process. The best way of all is to reduce the voltage applied to the cell by using more than one cell connected in a daisy-chain across the battery. With two cells, each will get about seven volts across it and the gas production will be doubled. If space in the engine compartment allows, a chain of six cells can be used which means each receives about two volts and the waste powers is reduced to some 10.6 watts per cell, while the gas production is six times higher. With the higher rate of gas production, it would probably be possible to reduce the chosen current flowing through the cell. Also, with six cells, the amount of water is six times greater and so there will be less concentrating of the electrolyte due to the water being used up.
This is a “Series-Cell” arrangement.
- The number of bubbles sticking to the surface of the electrode plates. This is generally considered to be a significant problem. Many methods have been used to deal with it. Some people use magnets, others pump the electrolyte around to dislodge the bubbles, others use buzzers to vibrate the plates and some pulse the voltage to the cell at just the right frequency to vibrate the cell. One of the best methods is to use the intake strokes of the engine to draw air through the cell (or cells).
Okay, than here is PWM from Stan meyer :
This electrclyser arrangement can be driven either via an a ternator or by a, electronic circuit. A 8U table circuit for the alternator arrangement is:
In this rather unusual circuit, the rotor INinding of an alternator is pulsed via an oscillator circuit »vhich has variable frequency and variable Mark/Space ratio and ……hich can be gated on and off to produce the output waveform shown below the alternator in the circuit diagram. This is the wavetcrm recommended by Stan Meyer . The oscilator circuit has a degree of supply de-coupling by the 100 ohm resister feedihg the – 100 micro farad capacitor.
This is to reduce voltage ripple corninq alorg the +12 volt supply line, caused by the current pu ses through the rotor winding.
The output arranqement feeding the pipe electrodes of the electrolyser is copied directly from Stan meyer’s circuit diagram. It is peculiar n that the positive pulses from each stator winding (shown in red in the circuit diagram) are applied to just two of the outer pipes, while the negative pulses (shown in blue n the circuit diagram are applied to all six inner tubes . It is hot obvious why Stan drew : that way, as you would expect all six outer tubes to be wired in parallel in the same way as the inner tubes are.
If the alternator does not have the winding , taken to the outside of the casing. it is necessary to open the alternator, remove the internal regulator and diodes and pull out three leads from tha ends of the stator windings . If you have an alternator which has the windings already accessible from the outside, than the stator winding connections are likely to be as shown here:
This same performance (An be produced by the solid-state circuit on its own. as shown here:
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