Fly Ash Pneumatic Conveying

PT. Woolu Sarana Tehnik, have an ability to design and construct any Fly Ash Pneumatic Conveying System. If you need to submit your inquiry regarding to this system, please contact here.

pneumatic woolu

The use of pneumatic conveying means has revolutionized conveying of high quantity of fly ash that is generated in power plants/DR plants that can be coarse to very fine. Further, the highly abrasive dust is safely conveyed in pipelines at low velocity to storage silo through means of pneumatic pressure vessel. This meet the needs of further transfer to desired destination points that are away from fly ash generation source.

Dry fly ash is important constituent for cement & fly ash bricks manufacturing, thus helping in material beneficiation as well as in preventing environmental pollution. Working through dense phase pneumatic conveying principle, these systems are versatile, efficient, reliable as well as fully automatic. Some of the unique features of these systems is:

  • Multi-location pick up point facility
  • Having bottom discharge option and no outlet valve
  • Using single conveying line for material transport

 

Process:

  • During operation, when height of fly ash in hopper above pneumatic pressure vessel reaches predetermined level (as detected by level probe), the feed valve of pneumatic pressure vessel opens thus allowing ash to fill vessel
  • On completion of filling, seal valve closes, thus allowing conveying cycle to commence as well as convey fly ash through enclosed pipeline to storage silo, where ash separates from conveying air and settling down in silo
  • Conveying air is safely vented out after passing through bag filter

System Designing:

  • These systems can be designed for single/multiple supply point arrangement
  • Can be used to convey through same pipeline with operations being controlled by standard circuitry or PLC
  • Providing mimic display facility for monitoring system performance
  • Specially designed pipeline & generously proportioned bends are used in pneumatic conveying system for reducing pipeline wear and tear

Fly ash disposal system –

  • Fly ash stored in fly ash storage silo utilizes telescopic chute/ash conditioner for loading into bulker/ trucks for meeting the demands of further transportation
  • Telescopic chute is used for loading fly ash into closed bulker/ tanker
  • Ash conditioner is used to load conditioned ash into open truck
  • Capacity of unloading system depends on system requirement

Key Benefits:

  • Prevention of pollution & protection of environment
  • Fly ash can be used in dry form as raw materials for cement manufacturing, bricks
  • Fully enclosed system
  • Energy and cost saving
  • Prevents caking
  • Space saving
  • Small to high capacity versatile system

Water Vapor Aspirated Injection

Sudah lama tidak aktif di dunia blog, apalagi di wordpress, mungkin sudah 1.5 tahun tidak aktif dalam arti fokus memelihara blog go2alam.
Selama itu pula telah banyak terima postingan via email mau pun via sms, terutama tentang water injection di kendaraan bermotor.
Oleh karena itu, mumpung hari ini lagi senggang, sebuah ulasan singkat tentang water inject berhasil disematkan 😀 walau light version karena via (BB).
Buat teman-teman netter, setelah sekian lama mencoba merasakan dan menghitung-hitung, water injection terbaik untuk daily use/regular use adalah yang berjenis “water vapor aspirated injection”.
Kenapa ?
Karena :
1. Murah dalam investasinya.
2. Mudah dalam meng applikasikan nya.
3. Tidak merusak sistem.
4. Hasil yang didapat relatif membantu user, yaitu : efisiensi bbm hingga 15%, nafas mesin menjadi lebih panjang, pembakaran instant berubah lebih lean, jadi gejala ngelitik/detonation dini bisa di eliminir.

So, yang sudah terlanjur pake wa-i stage 1 atau pun wa-i stage 2 dan HCS, langsung saja ganti wava-ai (water vapor aspirated injection.

Komposisi cairan wava-ai adalah :
1. Air 50%
2. Alkohol 50%
3. Volume terhadap tank : 75%
That’s all!

Selamat mencoba dan merasakan reliability dari sistem wava-ai !!! 🙂

Rate of HHO Gas & Influence Factor

Beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi besar kecil nya hydroxy gas terproduksi serta diagram PWM ex. stan meyer, ini hanya refference saja karena ada desakan dari teman-teman untuk di post kan disini, soalnya kalau disuruh kirim email attachment, koneksi ane yang cuman pake IM2 lemot nya bene bener lemot mot mot, suseh kirim nya gagal molo.

######

The rate of hydroxy gas production depends on a number of factors:

  1. The liquid used for electrolysis. If distilled water is used, then almost no current will flow through the cell as
    distilled water has a very high resistance to current flow, and almost no gas will be produced. It is normal
  2. practice to add some other substance to the water to increase the rate of gas production. If salt is added to the water, the rate of electrolysis increases enormously. However, that is not a good choice of additive as the salt forms a corrosive mixture and Chlorine gas is produced along with the Hydrogen and Oxygen gasses. The same goes for battery acid; it does work but it is a very poor choice which causes practical problems over a period of time. Other additives will create the increase in gas production but have similar undesirable effects. Two additives stand out as being the best choices. The first is Sodium Hydroxide (chemical symbol NaOH), sometimes called ‘lye’. The very best choice is Potassium Hydroxide (chemical symbol KOH) which is available in pellet form. Potassium Hydroxide acts as a catalyst in the process of electrolysis in that it promotes the gas production but does not get used up in the process.
  3. The spacing of the electrode plates. The closer together the plates are placed, the greater the rate of gas production. There is a practical limit to this, as bubbles of gas formed between the plates have to be able
    to escape and rise to the surface. The optimum spacing is generally considered to be 3 mm or 1/8 inch, although some people prefer to have a 5 mm gap between the plates. These plates are typically made from 316 grade stainless steel.
  4. The area of the electrode plates and the preparation of the plate surface. The greater the plate area, the greater the rate of gas production. Some of this effect may be due to the improvement in the chances of bubbles escaping from the plates and not blocking some of the plate area. It is recommended that each face of every electrode plate has an area of between two and four square inches (13 and 25 square centimetres) per amp of current flowing through the cell. The preparation of the surface of the plates has a major effect on the rate of gas production. A major improvement is achieved if both sides of each plate are sanded in a criss-cross pattern (this produces an increased surface area with thousands of microscopic peaks which help bubbles form and leave the plate). The plates are then assembled and immersed in the electrolyte solution for about three days. This creates a protective white coating on the surface of the plates which helps enhance the electrolysis. The
    plates are then rinsed off with distilled water and the cell is refilled with a fresh solution of electrolyte.
  5. The current flowing through the cell. This is an absolutely key factor in gas production, and one of the most difficult to control accurately and economically. The greater the current, the greater the rate of gas production. The current is controlled by the concentration of Potassium Hydroxide in the electrolyte (water plus KOH) and the voltage across the cell. The voltage across the cell has limited effect as it reaches a maximum at just 1.24 volts. Up to that point, an increase in voltage causes an increase in gas production rate. Once the voltage gets over 1.24 volts, increasing it further produces no further increase in the rate of gas production. If the voltage is increased above 1.24 volts, the extra voltage goes to heat the electrolyte. Assume that the current through the cell is 10 amps. In that case, the power used to produce gas is 10 amps x 1.24 volts = 12.4 watts. When the engine is running, the voltage at the battery terminals will be about 13.8 volts as the alternator provides the extra voltage to drive current into the battery. The excess voltage applied to the cell is about 1.24 less than that, say 12.5 volts. The power which heats the electrolyte is about 12.5 volts x 10 amps = 125 watts. That is ten times the power being used to produce gas. This is very, very inefficient.
  6. The following diagram may help you understand the situation:The best electrode material for the plates is 316L-grade stainless steel. It is hard to believe, but there is a voltage drop across the plate, which makes it necessary to apply about 2 volts to the plates on each side of the cell. So, if you are running off 12 volts, then six cells in a row across the battery gives the maximum possible drive. With the engine running and providing almost 14 volts, seven cells gives the highest possible drive. The electrolyte heating up is a wholly bad thing as it drives a good deal of water vapour out of the electrolyte and this mixes with the gas and is fed to the engine. Injecting water mist, which is a fine spray of water droplets, into an engine increases its performance due to the water expanding when it is heated. This improves both the engine power and the miles per gallon, and it makes the engine run cooler, which improves the life of the engine. But water vapour is a bad thing as it is already fully expanded and just gets in the way of the hydroxy gas, diluting it and lowering the power of the engine with no benefit at all. As the voltage applied to the cell is pretty much fixed, the current flow is controlled by the concentration of Potassium Hydroxide in the electrolyte and the plate area. Once the cell is built, the plate area is fixed, so the current is adjusted by controlling the amount of KOH added to the water. There is a slight limit to this, in that the gas production increases with KOH concentration until the concentration reaches 28% (by weight). After that point, any increase in the concentration produces a reduction in the rate of gas production. General practice is to have a fairly low concentration of KOH which is found by trial. Bob Boyce, who is very experienced in this field, says that you should never add water to NaOH or KOH. Always start with water, and add the chemical to the water SLOWLY, stirring well and allowing the mixture to cool in between additions. Shelf life depends on how well it is sealed from the atmosphere. Carbon is an enemy to this process. Whether the KOH is in dry or liquid form, it will absorb carbon from CO2 in the atmosphere, or any other source of free carbon. As this happens, the catalytic effect is diminished. The more carbon is absorbed, the less the catalytic efficiency of the electrolyte. So, if you wish to maintain maximum performance, it is crucial to keep air out of your dry or liquid chemical storage containers, AND away from the electrolyte in your cells.
  7. The temperature of the electrolyte. The hotter the electrolyte, the higher the current carried through it. This can be a snag. Suppose it is decided that the current through the cell is to be 10 amps and the electrolyte concentration adjusted to give that current when the engine is started. As time passes, the 125 watts of excess power drawn from the battery, heats the electrolyte, which in turn causes an increase in the current flowing through the cell, which causes even greater heating, which….. The result is positive feedback which causes a runaway temperature effect. This effect is aggravated by the water in the cell being used up as the vehicle drives along. This raises the concentration of the electrolyte because the amount of KOH remains the same while the amount of water reduces. There are different ways of dealing with this problem. One is to reduce the concentration of KOH so that the chosen current is only reached when the electrolyte has reached its maximum working temperature. This is a simple solution with the slight disadvantage that the gas production rate when starting is lower than it could be. However, the heating power is so high that it will not be long until the cell is operating at its maximum temperature. A different way to handle the problem is to use an electronic circuit to limit the current through the cell to the chosen value by dropping the voltage applied to the cell. This has the disadvantage that the extra power is being dissipated in the electronics which then has a heat problem. Also, this solution does not improve the overall efficiency of the process. The best way of all is to reduce the voltage applied to the cell by using more than one cell connected in a daisy-chain across the battery. With two cells, each will get about seven volts across it and the gas production will be doubled. If space in the engine compartment allows, a chain of six cells can be used which means each receives about two volts and the waste powers is reduced to some 10.6 watts per cell, while the gas production is six times higher. With the higher rate of gas production, it would probably be possible to reduce the chosen current flowing through the cell. Also, with six cells, the amount of water is six times greater and so there will be less concentrating of the electrolyte due to the water being used up.
    This is a “Series-Cell” arrangement.
  8. The number of bubbles sticking to the surface of the electrode plates. This is generally considered to be a significant problem. Many methods have been used to deal with it. Some people use magnets, others pump the electrolyte around to dislodge the bubbles, others use buzzers to vibrate the plates and some pulse the voltage to the cell at just the right frequency to vibrate the cell. One of the best methods is to use the intake strokes of the engine to draw air through the cell (or cells).

Okay, than here is PWM from Stan meyer :
This electrclyser arrangement can be driven either via an a ternator or by a, electronic circuit. A 8U table circuit for the alternator arrangement is:

In this rather unusual circuit, the rotor INinding of an alternator is pulsed via an oscillator circuit »vhich has variable frequency and variable Mark/Space ratio and ……hich can be gated on and off to produce the output waveform shown below the alternator in the circuit diagram. This is the wavetcrm recommended by Stan Meyer . The oscilator circuit has a degree of supply de-coupling by the 100 ohm resister feedihg the – 100 micro farad capacitor.
This is to reduce voltage ripple corninq alorg the +12 volt supply line, caused by the current pu ses through the rotor winding.
The output arranqement feeding the pipe electrodes of the electrolyser is copied directly from Stan meyer’s circuit diagram. It is peculiar n that the positive pulses from each stator winding (shown in red in the circuit diagram) are applied to just two of the outer pipes, while the negative pulses (shown in blue n the circuit diagram are applied to all six inner tubes . It is hot obvious why Stan drew : that way, as you would expect all six outer tubes to be wired in parallel in the same way as the inner tubes are.
If the alternator does not have the winding , taken to the outside of the casing. it is necessary to open the alternator, remove the internal regulator and diodes and pull out three leads from tha ends of the stator windings . If you have an alternator which has the windings already accessible from the outside, than the stator winding connections are likely to be as shown here:

This same performance (An be produced by the solid-state circuit on its own. as shown here:

* discontinue…

#by: Patrick.

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Fuel Cell HHO untuk VW Beetle 1964

Setelah check list mesin beetle sudah yakin oke, kemaren ogut mempersiapkan kembali fuel cell HHO
(hydroxy) dan water injection (wa-i) untuk si kodok kongkang 🙂

Moga moga saja pemasangan kali ini akan memberikan efisiensi pemakaian bahan bakar yang lebih baik lagi. Kalau dulu bisa dapat 1 liter = 16 KM, maka pemasangan kembali saat sekarang ini saya berharap bisa mencapai 1 liter = 25 KM atau lebih.

Fuel cell yang di generasi oleh proses elektrolisis secara umum bisa dijelaskan sebagai berikut :

Pada proses konvesional electrolisis dengan media demin water, gas hidrogen dapat terproduksi oleh karena adanya electrolyzing an acidic or alkaline aqueous solution. Overall proses yang terjadi bisa diterjemahkan seperti dibawah ini :

H2O + Electrical Energi –> H2 + 1/2 O2

Dimana energi listrik di konversi ke energi kimia menjadi gas hidrogen. Reaksi pada bagian katoda adalah sebagai berikut :

  • Katode (elektrode hidrogen)
  • 2 H2O + 2e-    –>   H2 + 2OH-
  • Anode (elektrode oxygen)
    • 2 OH   –>  1/2 O2 + H2O + 2e-

    Pada proses ini air sangat dibutuhkan dan hanya 2 elektrode yang terlibat dalam proses penguraian molekul air. Pada reaksi elektrolisa ini tidak terdapat reaksi sampingan yang merugikan (tidak bisa diterima oleh lingkungan). Jadi proses dari reaksi tersebut diatas bersih, aman (note: sesuai bidang keilmuan) dan tidak memerlukan pemisahan atau pun purifikasi product yang di hasilkan.

    Hukum pertama dari thermodinamic untuk sistem yang terbuka adalah sebagai berikut :

    • Q – Ws = dH    (r: 4)

    Dimana Q = panas yang ditambahkan pada sistem. Ws = beban sistem & dH = perubahan entalphy pada sistem. Beban yang ada pada elektolizer, Ws :

    • Ws = – n F E    (r: 5)
    • dimana :
    • n : jumlah electron yang di transfer
    • F : nilai konstanta dari Faraday = 23.074 cal/volt gm equiv dan
    • E : nilai tegangan yang di aplikasikan pada sistem.
  • Memanipulasi rumus nomor 4 & 5, kita bisa mendapatkan :
  • E = (dH – Q) : n F   (r: 6)
    • Untuk isothermal reversible proses, nilai Q bisa sebagai berikut :
  • Qrev = T dS   (r: 7)
    • T = temperature
    • dS = perubahan temperature pada sistem entropy. substitusi rumus no. 7 dengan rumus no. 6 memberikan hasil sebagai berikut (which neither hydrogen nor oxygen can be generated). :
    • Erev = (dH – T dS) : n F    (r: 8)
  • (dH – T dS) adalah peluang di dalam sistem gibbs free energy dG. dt kondisi standard ( 25 derajat celcius & 1 atm ) dH sama dengan 68.320 cal/gmole and dG sama dengan 56.690 cal/gmole. Oleh karena itu, Cell Reversible Potensial sama dengan :
    • Erev = dG : (n F)
    • = 56.690 : (2 x 23.074)
    • = 1.23 volt.
    • will be continue! *capek ogut nya*


    ## peralatan yang dibutuhkan untuk membuat fuel cell


    ## lengkap dengan difusi hidrgen


    ## fuel cell HHO yang sudah siap di pasang di VW beetle 1964


    ## fuel cell HHO di coba doloe sebelum di install

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    Water Injection – Kawasaki Ninja 1996

    Pemasangan wai (water injection) di motor 2 tak seperti kawasaki ninja ini sangatlah mudah dikarenakan pada jalur ‘RIS’ bawaan dari motor sudah tersedia.

    Dan kebetulan rangka yang dipergunakan pada motor kenceng ini sama seperti rangka yang digunakan pada motor yamaha scorpio sehingga memudahkan dalam pemasangan handle water storage, tidak seperti rangka yang digunakan pada motor tigi, kalau di tigi agak suseh pasang nya, butuh perjuangan yang lebih panjang :))

    Karena motor ini bukan motor saya, maka setelah mendapatkan laporan bahwa pemasangan water injection pada ninja tersebut memang memberikan dampak langsung yang positif pada tenaga motor maupun konsumsi premium nya, maka dokumen pemasangan saya posting di sini 🙂

    Berikut foto dari installasi water injection di motor kawasaki ninja tahun 1996 :

    Kran air, Water storage & Non return valve

    Kran air, Water storage & Non return valve

    Kawasaki Ninja & Sheng Dhuwe

    Kawasaki Ninja & Sheng Dhuwe

    Water Injection – VW Beetle Th 1964

    Pemasangan water injection pada vw beetle sangat mudah, karena pada leher angsa dari carburetor mesin vw ternyata telah tersedia port inlet nya.

    Setelah pemasangan wai pada beetle saya, langkah berikutnya adalah mencoba kendaraan antik tersebut melakukan perjalanan dari kota serang, banten menuju kotabumi, lampung utara. Perjalanan tersebut memakan waktu 10 jam perjalanan (2.5 jam bertengger di kapal ferry).

    Selama perjalanan tidak diketemukan permasalahan yang berarti, secara over all, semuanya lancar-lancar saja. Nah, ternyata pemakaian premium si kodok antik ini sangat irit. Perjalanan yang cukup jauh tersebut, hanya membutuhkan duit 100 rebu rupiah saja atau sama dengan 16.5 liter bensin/premium. Murah banget, padahal kodok merah antik punya saya ini berkapasitas mesin 1800 cc. Penumpang pada saat berangkat ada 4 orang (saya sendiri, om, ibu mertua dan pembantu).

    Bener-bener selama perjalanan kita layaknya bersafari nde, sepanjang jalan, kenyang dapat ancungan jempol dari mobil mau pun motor yang se arah mau pun yang berpapasan 🙂 mungkin karena kodok antik saya bentuk nya memang imut 😀

    Berikut beberapa foto pemasangan water injection pada vw beetle milik saya :

    water injection pada vw beetle

    water injection pada vw beetle

    water injection inlet

    water injection inlet

    water storage for wai

    water storage for wai

    wai installation on VW Beetle 1964

    wai installation on VW Beetle 1964